Bappeda : Local Development Planning Agency
CEDAW : Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Dp3ap2kb : The department of women empowerment, child protection, population control and family planning
Musrenbang : Community consultation on development planning
MUSRENA : Council Action Plan for Women and Child
PwDs : Person with Disabilities
Qanun : Aceh government regulation/ regional regulation
SKPD : Regional work unit
WDC : Women Development Centre
WPS : Women, Peace and Security
Women’s participation in decision making has received significant attention in several regions in Indonesia. This is evidenced by the increasing involvement of women in the decision-making process and development planning process in musrenbang (community consultation on development planning), held annually from village level, sub-district, district / city level, province and national level. The involvement of women is still considered under-represented in decision-making, especially the marginalized women group, such as women in poverty, disabilities, and women affected by conflict, violence and disasters. The low participation of marginalized group make the implementation of the planning and development processes are gender biased and not inclusive, where inclusive has the conditions of a positive social environment, in socio-economic and accessibility. Inclusive policy is able to place marginalized groups as part of diversity in social role and contribute to national development.
Indonesia has a policy framework for increasing gender equality, and real commitment for person with disabilities (PwDs). This includes a statement of the Constitution of the Republic Indonesia (1945), ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and ratification of the United Nations Convention on Rights of Person with disabilities (UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities) in 2011 and the national regulation No. 8/ 2016 concerning the rights of persons with disabilities. The instruction of the President of Indonesia No. 9/2000 concerning “Gender Mainstreaming in National Development” to require mainstreaming gender issues in government institutions and the programs in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating for all women without discrimination.
Banda Aceh government considering to increase women’s participation by innovating the Council Action Plan for Women and Child (MUSRENA) through the Banda Aceh mayor regulation No. 52 /2018. The objective of MUSRENA is to strengthen the position of women in decision-making and policy-making that had been dominated by men. It’s a part of a mechanism to accelerate the realization of Gender Mainstreaming of development in accordance with the mandate of Presidential Instruction no 9 /2000. The basic principles that are used as guidelines are include the principle of equality, budget-gender equality, dialogical consultation,no-domination, partiality to marginalized groups, no-discrimination, and holistic development.
However, based on observation there are still many people who consider the lack of marginalized women’s participation, so the fulfillment of their rights not well-implemented. Aceh have regulations to improve the people’s life quality, they are qanun no.11/2013 (social welfare), qanun No. 7/2014 (concerning employment), as well as other policies of marginalized groups. Moreover, the governments are start to adopt sustainable development goals (SDGs) and already in the implementation phase, which are including the gender equality (gender equality), no poverty (no more poverty), decent work and economic grow (decent work and economic growth) and reduce inequalities (reducing the level of inequality) with the aim of achieve the prosperity and social justice.
Natural Aceh which currently implemented the Women, Peace and Security hopes to help socialize and facilitate policies, programs or targets that the government will and has done, especially the government of Banda Aceh with their various innovations and work plans. Natural Aceh remains committed to the government in terms of development (physical and non-physical) to achieve better quality, welfare and equality of education, economic empowerment, social, life skills, youth, women, disaster to marginalized and grassroots grou
II Progress to date
Natural Aceh have been doing some progress for this program, which are focus group discussion between women institutions and local government (16 January 2019) and seminar (12 February 2019). Participants that were attended the focus group discussions are Aceh Polytechnic, The Communication Forum for Communities with Special Needs of Aceh (FKM-BKA), department of social, Department of civil population and registration service, law bureau, department of women empowerment, child protection, population control and family planning, department of regional disaster management, Flower Aceh, Children and Youth Disabilities for Change (CYDC), Puan Adissa, Indonesian Family Planning Associate (PKBI), The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (KKR), Anti Drugs Associate, Polytechnic Aceh, Banda Aceh Agency for Disaster Management, and TUCC (Trade Union Care Centre).
- Focus Group Discussions
In this discussion, Natural Aceh explained the facts, data and regulation implementation of each condition that are faced by marginalized women in Banda Aceh, then government respond to and explain the achievements related programs.
Mediation between beneficiaries and the government, where the government presents data, facts, work plans and programs related to marginalized women.
1.2. Location and Time
Focus group discussions were conducted at Polytechnic Aceh, January 16th 2019.
The details of discussions are:
- How is the facts that faced by marginalized women in decisions-making, planning and other public access?
- The extent to which women are participating in local decision-making (village to city government level).
- Identifying barriers experienced by marginalized women groups in accessing resources and services.
Regulation that were discuss:
- Mayor regulation no.52/2018, the guidelines of MUSRENA (Council Action Plan for Women and Child)
- Regulation (Indonesia) no 8/2016 the rights of person with disabilities
- Socialized the mayor’s regulation no 1/2019 of the person with disabilities
- Assisted the rules in village level to support the women participation in decision-making, policy advocacy and fulfillment the women rights.
- Socialization the programs in planning and infrastructure
- Socialized the potency and inclusive mitigation of disaster in village level
- FGD results socialization in the largest local newspaper in Aceh (Serambi Indonesia, January 17, 2019)
- FGD results socialization on Radio Republik Indonesia (Government public broadcasting service with coverage of all23 cities in Aceh, January 18, 2019)
- Important to continue-updating the marginalized women and disabilities data
- Monitoring and evaluation of programs related to marginalized women in each Regional Work Unit (SKPD)
Figure 1. FGD Documentation
Seminar were conducted by Natural Aceh in cooperation with Banda Aceh government as a keynote speaker they are Local Development Planning Agency (Banda Aceh); Mr. Hafriza S.TP; MA as Head of human resource development planning in Banda Aceh Development Planning Agency and Head of Dp3ap2kb (The department of women empowerment, child protection, population control and family planning); Mrs. dr. Media Yulizar, MPH and ED of Flower Aceh (women’s rights empowerment and advocacy institutions in Aceh); Mrs. Riswati M.Si as a Moderator.
seminar were opened by the new mayor of Banda Aceh; Mr. H. Aminullah Usman; MM and the
staffs of Banda Aceh government (Figure 2). He showed his support for women
participation in government, plan to improve the socio-economic for women in
poverty and inclusive public access for person with disabilities, in which strengthening
efforts to empower women and protect children has indeed become one of the government’s
missions. He said that “Empowering
women and providing maximum protection for children is one of the focuses of
the development of the Banda Aceh City Government today.” Then, Ellena
Yusti M. Si as manager program of women, peace and security (WPS) presented the
activity report that were held since October 2018 and explained what the
objectives of WPS program. The seminar duration were run during four hours,
where the keynote speaker presented their achievements during this time, work
plans and the sustainability of the programs related to marginalized women and
also socialized the regulation related to women in decision making. It’s
attended by 75 participants, including the institution of women, disabilities,
the law institution and colleagues (Figure 2).
Figure 2. The seminar opening ceremony of socialized the mayor regulation, programs and work plans of women, marginalized women and children in Banda Aceh
2.1. Location and Time
Seminar were conducted at Polytechnic Kutaradja convention center, February 12, 2019. Participants that were attended this seminar are representative of 9 sub-district in Banda Aceh (Baiturrahman, Banda Raya,Jaya Baru, Kuta Alam, Kuta Raja, Lueng Bata, Meuraksa, Syiah Kuala and Ulee kareng), representative of 8 villages (Ateuk Pahlawan, Lam Ara, Alue Deah, Pineung, Keudah, Blang Cut, Alue Naga and Jeulingke), 14 of PKK (), 7 representatives of Balee Inong, Bappeda (Local Development Planning Agency), Dp3ap2kb (The department of women empowerment, child protection, population control and family planning), Flower Aceh, , The Communication Forum for Communities with Special Needs of Aceh (FKM – BKA), CYDC (Children and Youth Disabilities for Change), HWDI (Indonesian Women with Disabilities Forum) , WDC (Women Development Centre), Balai Syura, KPI (Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia)AWPF (Aceh Women For Peace Foundation),SEIA (Inong Aceh Federation),Young Voice, KOHATI (Student women’s organizations), Law Organization, Kontras (The Commission for Disappeared and Victims of Violence), Polytechnic Kutaradja, Muhammadiyah Aceh University, Serambi Mekkah University and Syiah Kuala University.
- Sharing the regulation that related to marginalized women
- The government (Bappeda and Dp3ap2kb) presented a two-year work program related to the role of women in decision making and the extent program that supported the quality of life of marginalized women.
- CSOs, universities, private Companies and stakeholders are also share their programs
- Develop a strategic plan to increase inclusive participation in sustainable development goals (SDGs) related namely SDGs 5 (gender equality) SDGs 1 (no poverty) and 10 (reduce inequalities).
- Sharing and discussion
- Seminar Results
- Local Development Planning Agency (Bappeda Banda Aceh)
The Local Development Planning Agency presented the innovative local policy (mayor’s regulation no.52/November 2018); MUSRENA (Council Action Plan for Women and Child), sustainable development goals, inclusive development, the work plans and programs that related to gender equality and women life-quality improvement, especially for marginalized women, such as inclusive infrastructure for women and children and improve the public service related to SDGs point.
MUSRENA (Council Action Plan for Women and Child) is the main instrument of the Banda Aceh government to realize gender-friendly city since 2007, while the composition of the population of women and men in Banda Aceh was relatively balanced. The guideline of Musrena is arranged by the regulation of the Banda Aceh mayor no 52/2018. The idea of the need Musrena motivated based on the lack of women participation in decision making and development planning within the Musrenbang (Development Planning Meeting). This idea is a manifestation of the commitment of Mayor and Deputy Mayor and the ranks of the bureaucracy to open up the widest space for the participation of the whole society, especially women in the overall development process of the city. The articipants are the representative women in each village, women with disabilities and child. Musrena provides an opportunity and full participation for women as gender mainstreaming (PUG) and the Gender Responsive Budgeting (ARG) on the lowest level; the village (gampong) (Figure 3).The concept of Musrena, a consultative forum for women’s action was initiated by the Municipality of Banda Aceh they are, Local development planning agency/Bappeda) and Agency of the women’s empowerment, child protection, population control and family planning (DP3AP2KB) with support from the program.
The specific objectives of the method of this plan is to strengthen the position of women in decision-making and policy-making that had been dominated by men, in the following matters: sensitize women about the importance of their role in determining the direction of regional development, building a greater understanding good to women’s needs and improve their lives through programs / regional development. While the general purpose of Musrena is to realize the city of Banda Aceh as a friendly-city gender.
MUSRENA mechanism performed at village level and at the district level which then continues on integration forum. MUSRENA at village level aiming to reach an agreement proposed village activity by reviewing the village to gather information related to the needs, problems, potential and resources and the determination of the ideals of hope for the future of society, especially women, to be financed from the budget and the village fund allocation (ADD). Women’s leaders will hold a meeting and elect two (2) representatives for MUSRENA implementation at the district level. With the number of districts in the city of Banda Aceh as many as nine districts, they are Kuta Raja, Kuta Alam, Syiah Kuala, Meuraksa, Baiturrahman, Lueng Bata, Jaya Baru and Banda Raya. Implementation at the district level MUSRENA done 3 times, where each implementation combines three districts. MUSRENA at the district level followed by two representatives from each village.
Each implementation MUSRENA sub-district will be held for 2 (two) days. So that women can take part in the planning of both mechanisms, then the sub-district Musrena carried out at the time does not coincide with the implementation of planning forums in the district concerned. Participants MUSRENA, comprising: PKK members, elected women cooperative members, members elected female entrepreneurs, members elected female recitals; districts and local authorities. In the implementation of the first MUSRENA, participants MUSRENA given the knowledge of the development planning process in the area, in which also explained about MUSRENA. Following a common understanding, then followed by a presentation about the program and budget of each SKPD (Figure 4). The purpose of this exposure is to give an overview to the participants MUSRENA on the allocation of the available budget. In the next MUSRENA, exposure of the planning process will no longer be given exclusively and at length as when the first execution since the participants MUSRENA already have an understanding of it. Exposure is more focused on budget allocations and programs by each SKPD. Thus, participants MUSRENA can formulate needs in the activities and programs more effective.
(i), (ii) Opening ceremony by the Bappeda and representative of Banda Aceh mayor, (iii) Dicussion between the participants with DP3aP2KB, Bappeda and representative of SKPD, (iv)(v) each participants were discussed and chosen what plans and programs that needed in their village, (vi) Participant were presented the plans and programs that needed in their village.
- Inclusive Infrastructure Planning
An inclusive city is one that values all people and their needs equally, it can be achieved with a multidimensional and integrated approach, they are access to public services and infrastructure such as housing, water, electricity, sanitation etc; protection of rights, participation and security. Banda Aceh has a mayor regulation no.14/2017 about inclusive infrastructure planning which involves all levels of communities especially women, person with disabilities and children, which during this time the implementation is still developed.
Based on our monitoring, the public access for person with disabilities in Banda Aceh are still develop, but based on our mediation they mostly revolve around issues related to universal access, creation of barrier-free environments, and upgrading and improving existing infrastructure. However, there are some accesses that have been supported by the government and in good categories are access to health and disasters protection (Figure 5 and 6) which many access still in implemented progress, such as inclusive education, mosques, manpower and justice and legal protection services, which is the most important are manpower, to be financially independent, which based on our data there are 86% of unemployed women with disabilities and still discriminate in social environment. The inclusive education is also to be an important factor, for now, government has 1% quota for PwDs manpower, but with high-degree education qualification, in which many of PwDs have a low level education.
Infrastructure is critical to social functioning with direct impact on social well-being, earnings, education and health. So that when infrastructure is inaccessible its mean we lock them out (PwDs) of development and deny them the right to participate in society. The lack of accessibility in infrastructure comes down to these factors, inadequate knowledge or understanding with decision makers not understanding the implications of design, lack of user input from PwDs especially women and child with disabilities. It is essential to consult and involve PwDs, especially women and children (Figure 6). Their perspectives, combined with an understanding of the technical issues can help ensure cost-effective and practical solutions (Bappeda, 2018).
There are some regulation that socialized in seminar by Local Development Planning Agency for the inclusive development, that support women and person with disabilities:
- Aceh qanun (province regulation) no 11/2006 women’s empowerment and protection
- Regulation no 8/2016 the rights of person with disabilities, the government and regional governments must carry out planning, implementation and evaluation of the implementation of respect, protection and fulfillment of the rights of persons with disabilities.
- Mayor regulation no 52/2018 Guideline of Musrena
- Mayor regulation no 19/2018 concerning guidelines for social aids for persons with disabilities
- Mayor regulation of the fulfillment of the rights of person with disabilities (in progress)
- Gender Equality and Sustainable Development Goals
Government of Banda Aceh has adopt and implementation their works and programs refer to points of sustainable development goals (SDGs), one of that point is gender equality (achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls). Until now, the government continues to increase women’s participation through programs and cooperation between institutions in order to empower all women and girls, equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes. During this time, the implementation of SDGs has reached 55% for 17 points of SDGs, where SDGs 5 (gender equality) is still in the low category because there is still little representative of women in government (Figure 7). Government institution in cooperative with CSOs are currently trying to increase the SDGs index in the Banda Aceh, where all programs and innovations work plans support gender equality and marginalized women.
The current gender issues condition in Banda Aceh:
- Increased awareness of the gender issues maintenance in planning, legislation, finance and economic development
- The lack of women ratio in house of people’s representative (DPR), which in Banda Aceh just have one women from 30 man members, so that the work plans and programs not taking side to women
- Over all, the women’s with high education degree (Master and PhD) rate are higher than man, hopefully it will support the representative women in government and CSO.
- Dp3ap2kb (The department of women empowerment, child protection, population control and family planning)
Dp3ap2kb is a government department that has responsibility to improve the women life quality, women rights protection and the involvement of women in birth planning and socialized the sexual and reproduction health (the used of contraception) and the rights of children. Dp3ap2kb support of all program that improve the women and children quality life, for example the political education for women. Dp3ap2kb support the women’s participation in politics that considered important because it is a manifestation of social responsibility and obligation for everyone without distinguishing gender to improve the condition of society, constitution and legislation in politics given a 30% interest for women.
In the Seminar, the Head of Dp3ap2kb, dr Media Yulizar, MPH socialized the work plans and programs of the Dp3ap2kb and also the achievement of the programs, for example the violence against women that handle by Integrated Service Center for Women and Children Empowerment (P2TP2A) along with safe houses for victims of violence. They have recorded and handled cases of violence against women and children since 2014 -2018, which there were 825 cases of violence during this period (Figure 8). In handling the case, they provide psychiatrists for traumatic healing and lawyers.
Moreover, dr Media Yulizar, MPH presented the work programs from Dp3ap2kb that strengthens women’s capacity through Balee Inong in each village at banda Aceh. The history of Balee Inong which is established since 2007 is due to the various problems faced by women such as the lack capacity and women’s participation in development, economic, social, political, cultural, the post conflict and tsunami that reduced levels of solidarity among women. Balee Inong is an organization under the gender division at Dp3ap2kb is to improve the quality of women through education, develop women’s potential through knowledge and to be more independent and participatory to improve the social welfare.
In addition, the Women Development Center (WDC) is an innovation forum of Government for increasing women’s capacity in economic, political, legal, health, education, social, cultural and religious. In addition, the WDC is an information center for institutions, agencies and individuals related to the female profile of Banda Aceh, through the provision of data bases. This is important in order to increase women’s participation in order to accelerate the development of the city of Banda Aceh in the future.
Prepared by: Ellena Yusti M.Si and Zainal Abidin Suarja M.Pd